Finals CNS

Övningen är skapad 2019-06-17 av Deborahshako. Antal frågor: 57.

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  • Myopia ​can see objects that are close, but distant objects appear blurred
  • Presbyopia loss of accommodation that occurs with age and is associated with loss of lens elasticity
  • Astigmatism ​ is a condition that causes blurred vision due to the cornea and/or lens not being smoothly curved and symmetrical
  • ​Accommodation he process by which the eye adjusts the shape of the lens to keep objects in focus
  • nearsightedness the focal point falls ​in front ​ of ​or behind ​ (choose one) the retina
  • Alpha waves 8-13 hz, eyes closed, awake, abolished my mental effort or opening of eyes
  • The monopolar EEG montage collects signals at the active site and compares them with a reference electrode
  • Beta waves 14-60 hz, awake, eyes open
  • The bipolar EEG montage compares signals between two active scalp electrodes
  • threshold stimulus The minimum stimulus required to activate receptor
  • Phasic receptors receptor that fire rapid dont maintain their firing no longer than seconds even if stimulus is still present
  • receptor potential The change in sensory receptor membrane potential is a graded potential
  • odorant binding proteins they act as odorant transporters, delivering the odorant molecules to olfactory receptors in the cell membrane of sensory neurons
  • Salty tasting substances activate Na+ selective channels
  • Sweet substances block extracellular currents of K+ ions by the way of Gs protein
  • Bitter substances trigger generator potential by releasing Ca2+ ions from endoplasmic reticulum
  • Somatic reflexes reflexes in which skeletal muscles are the effectors
  • Flexor reflex polysynpatic strech reflex
  • Consensual light reflex ​crossed reflexphysiological
  • Direct light reflex a pupillary contraction when you shine light onto the retina of this eye
  • stereopsis (binocular vision) allows the visual apparatus to accurately determine the distance of an object from the eye (dept of perception)
  • Glutamate released by rod & cones (photoreceptors), majority of excitatory synapses
  • Nonassociative learning a change in behaviour that takes place after repeatedexposure to a single stimulus
  • In habituation learning ​negative memory, synaptic pathway inhibited
  • anterograde amnesia Inability to remember newly acquired information, takes away declarative memory
  • Reflexive (implicit/proceduarl) memory automatic, unconscious, acquired slowly through repetition,
  • ​nonassociative learning change in behaviour that takes place after repeated exposure to a single stimulus
  • Semantic memories memory that store general factual knowledge that is independent of personal experience
  • Sensory memory corresponds approximately to the initial 2-5 s after an item is perceived
  • consolidation The processing of information that converts short term memory to long term memory
  • Muller cells retinal astrocytes, ​acc. to presentation
  • ​absolute refractory period 1ms, after that a AP can be triggered by a extra large stimulus
  • the suprachiasmatic (area) The internal clock of mammals appears to be located in
  • Reflexive memory/emotional memory stored in the areas of the cerebellum
  • ​Declarative memories stored in the cortical areas of the temporal lobes
  • Semantic memory one of the two types of declarative or explicit memory (our memory of facts or events that is explicitly stored and retrieved), independant of personal experience
  • Tonic receptors slow adapting, brain updated about body & its surrounding, activated by parameters thta are constantly monitored,
  • olfactory receptors The only known example of neurons with a high rate of replacement in the adult human
  • REM Sleep the period during which most dreaming takes place, newborns spend half of their sleep
  • sensory speech wernicke's area; middle gyrus in temporal lobe
  • motor speech broca's area; inferior frontal gyrus of frontal lobe
  • Astrocytes supply fuel to neurons in the form of lactic acid, store glycogen, in PNS, support, brace & anchor neuron to their nutrient supply lines. makes exchanges between capillaries and neurons.
  • ​142 mEq/L The concentration of Na+ ions in the extracellular fluid
  • 5 mm The concentration of K+ ions in the extracellular fluid
  • 15 mM The concentration of Na+ ions in the intracellular fluid
  • Acetylcholine synth. in presynaptic terminal by large pyramidal cells, from acetyl Co-enzyme A
  • Serotonin synthesized fr. tryptophan, has inhibitory effect, a biogenic amine
  • High-frequency ​ waves entering the vestibular duct create maximum displacement of the basilar membrane close to the oval window and consequently are not transmitted very far along the cochlea
  • Low-frequency ​ waves travel along the length of the basilar membrane and create their maximum displacement near the flexible distal end
  • perilymph The fluid in the vestibular and tympanic ducts
  • endolymph the fluid in scala media, semiciruclar canal, vestibular apparatus
  • attenuation reflex a reflex contraction of the muscles of the cochlea in the response to loud sounds, Can reduce intensity of lower frequency sound transmission by 30-40 dB, to protect the cochlea and to mask low-frequency sounds in loud environment.
  • Neurotransmitters which are amines Norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin
  • Neuroransmitters which are amino acids GABA, glycine, glutamate, aspartate
  • Nitric Oxide is formed instantly when needed, not preformed and not stored in vesicle. It affects metabolism and long-term behaviour and memory.
  • Interneurons neurons that lie entirely in the CNS
  • Varicosities enlarged regions ​along the axon ​, which store and release neurotransmitters

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