Immuno seminar 1

Övningen är skapad 2019-06-04 av Deborahshako. Antal frågor: 40.

Välj frågor (40)

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  • barriers, eliminators of a wide range of pathogens irrespective of their antigenic “make-up” Nonspecific component
  • adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and can generate pathogen-specific immunity specific immunity
  • inherited fr. the parents, protects fr. birth throughout life Innate immunity
  • acquired after the birth, specific, mediated by antibodies or lymphocytes, memory cells involved, self-recognition Adaptive immunity
  • person exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease & then develops immunity Natural immunity
  • can be induced by a vaccine or short-term immunization induced by the transfer of antibodies Artificial
  • used to prevent the effects of a future infection by any natural or wild pathogens e.g. anti-rabies vaccine Prophylactic vaccines
  • devised to harness the immune response to treat diseases e.g. MS, Cancer Therapeutic vaccines
  • Routes of vaccine administrations deep cutanoues, oral, intradermal, scarification, intranasal
  • microorganisms killed with chemicals and/or heat and are no longer infectious, require booster shots. e.g. vaccines against flu, cholera, plague, and hepatitis A Inactivated vaccines
  • microorganisms cultivated under conditions which disable their ability to induce disease, durable - do not generally require booster shots. e.g yellow fever, measles, rubella, and mumps. Live, attenuated vaccines
  • inactivated toxic compounds from microorganisms in cases where “these”, rather than the micro-organism itself cause illness, used prior to an encounter e.g. toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria. Toxoids
  • are composed of small fragments of disease-causing organisms. e.g. is the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus Subunit vaccines
  • the transfer of antibody produced by one human or other animal to another, temporary, a.b. will degrade during a period passive immunity
  • A branch of medicine that studies organ transplants, First succesful transplant recorded in 1869, First successful organ transplant 1905 transplantology
  • The girl who's blood group changed Demi-Lee Brennan
  • awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1996 for the discovery of how the immune system recognizes virus-infected Rolf Martin Zinkernagel, Peter C. Doherty
  • identical immunoglobulins generated fr. a single clone of B-cells, can recognize unique epitotes or binding sites on the surface of the antigens, Monoclonal antibodies
  • types of monoclonal antibodies murine, chimeric, humanised, human
  • Donor organisms like mice and rats are being used for the production of specific antibodies Murine antibodies
  • A chimeric antibody (cAb) is an antibody made by fusing the antigen binding region (variable domains ) from one species like a mouse, with the constant domain (effector region) from another species such as a rabbit Chimeric antibodies
  • Humanized antibodies are antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to increase their similarity to antibody variants produced naturally in humans Humanized antibodies
  • proteins are electrophoretically separated and then transferred to a blotting paper, which is exposed to labeled antibodies to detect the proteins Western blotting
  • form of immunotherapy that uses monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to bind nonspecifically to certain cells or proteins, stimulating the patient's immune system to attack those cells Monoclonal antibody therapy
  • uses an antibody labeled with a radioactive isotope to deliver cytotoxic radiation to a target cell radioimmunotherapy
  • antibodies linked to one or more drug molecules Antibody-drug conjugates
  • antibody-conjugated liposomes, used in vivo to convey tumour-suppressing genes into tumours may be directed against malignant cells, Immunoliposome therapy
  • uses antibodies and other techniques to circumvent the defenses that tumors use to suppress the immune system checkpoint therapy
  • Received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one awarded, for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin. lived 15 March 1854 - 31 March 1917 Emil Von Behring
  • An infection, Signs and symptoms may vary from mild to severe In severe cases, a grey or white patch develops in the throat. The neck may swell in part due to enlarged lymph nodes Diphteria
  • The therapeutic serum developed by Behring, introduced serum from immune horses as a method to cure and prevent Active Protective Vaccination against Diphtheria
  • present on all nucleated cells & platelets. Functions for disting healthy vs. unhealthy cells, clears endogenous pathogens (e.g. tumors), interracts with CD8+ receptors, encoded by HLA-A & HLA-B & HLA-C MHC CLASS 1
  • Present on all APC's. Functions in communications between leukocytes, clearens of exogenous antigens (e.g. bacterial toxins), interracts with CD4+ receptors, encoded by HLA-D gene MHC CLASS 2
  • Organ transplanation between two identical twins isograft
  • Organ transplantation within an individual Autograft
  • Organ transplantation between non-identical person Allograft
  • Organ transplanation between two species Xenograft
  • occurs within minutes, pre-formed antibodies attack the donor's organ. May result fr. multiple pregnencies, blood transfusions or previous transplantations, cause thrombosis which leads to ischemia Hyperactive rejection
  • occurs within weeks-months, cell-mediated rejection caused by cytokines produced by T-helper cells, humoral antibodies bind to alloantigens on vascular endothelial cells, leads to injury & IV thrombosis & graft destruction Acute rejection
  • Occurs fr. months-years, fibrosis of transplanted vessels occur (leads to scar formation), long-term loss of function Chronic rejection

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