DNA, RNA and Protein Biosynthesis

Övningen är skapad 2023-09-07 av Zjelvgren. Antal frågor: 81.

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  • Molecular composition of cell: water, inorganic ions and organic molecules
  • Nucleic acids: Deoxyribonuckleic acid and Ribonucleic acid
  • Shape of DNA: double helix
  • The two strands (DNA) are: antiparallel
  • Two strands (DNA) are held together by: hydrogen bonds
  • Which base pairs in DNA does always pair together? A+T and G+C
  • How many hydrogen bonds does an A-T pari have? 2
  • How many hydrogen bonds does a G-C pair have? 3
  • Which base pair is stronger? G-C
  • What is Chargaff´s rule? content of A=T and content of G=C
  • How is Chargaff´s rule proven? by the complementary base pairing in DNA structure
  • In which strand (DNA) is genetic information proven? template strand
  • What does the double helix contain in which proteins interact with DNA major and minor grooves
  • 4 steps in Chargaff´s rules are: 1. Base composition in DNA varies from species to species but always amount of A=T 2. Amount of C=G 3. total amount of purines=total amount of pyrimidines 4. AT/CG ratio varies between species
  • RNA is made up of: a long chain of components called ribonucleotides
  • Which pyrimidine base replaces thymine in RNA? uracil
  • Which sugar replaces deoxyribose in RNA: ribose
  • In RNA A+U form a bace pari with how many hydrogen bonds? 2
  • How many strands does RNA have 1
  • RNA is a linear what? plymer
  • Nucleotide subunits in RNA are linked together by what? phosphodiester bonds
  • Describe ribosomal RNA: Comprises major portion of ribosome and involved in synthesis of polypeptide chains
  • Describe Transfer RNA: Carriers amino acids to ribosome and recognizes codons on mRNA
  • Describe Small nuclear RNA: Involved in the processing of mRNA and are molecules in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
  • Nicknames for Small nuclear RNA are: snRNA and snurps
  • Describe Guide RNA Involved in processing of RNA or DNA
  • Describe regulatory RNA: functions in the regulation of gene expression by binding to proteins/DNA/other RNA molecules
  • describe Antisense RNA: functions in regulating gene expression by base pairing to mRNA
  • Describe Recognition RNA: part of a few enzymes (telomerase) enables them to recognize certain short DNA sequences
  • What is Ribozymes? Enzymatically active RNA molecules
  • Where can you find rRNA? in the ribosomes
  • Which RNA count for 80% of the total RNA present in the cell? rRNA
  • rRNA combine with what and where to form ribosomes? proteins, enzymes and cytoplasm
  • Ribosomes act as? the site of protein synthesis
  • Among others, what do rNA interact with that are crucial to protein synthesis? tRNA
  • mRNA is a? single stranded RNA molecule and is complementary to one of the DNA strands of a gene
  • mRNA moves from where to where and what is made? nucleus to cytoplasm and proteins
  • What is the process called where the ribosome moves along mRNA, reads the sequence and uses the genetic code to translate each three-base triplet into corresponding amino acid? protein synthesis
  • tRNA carriers what? amino acids
  • tRNAs are ribonucleic acids and therefore capable of what? forming hydrogen bonds with mRNA
  • intron non-coding region
  • exon coding region
  • Which molecule play a critical role in RNA splicing? snurps
  • Where are snurps found? nucleus
  • Snurps are typically tightly bound to: proteins in complexes called snRNPs
  • The most abundant molecules of snurps are: U1, U2, U5 and U4/U6
  • U1, U2, U5 and U4/U6 are doing what: splicing pre mRNA to give rise to mature mRNA
  • What are Catalytic RNA? RNAs with enzymic activity
  • One example of a Catalytic RNA is: ribozymes
  • Ribozymes have roles where: replication, mRNA processing and splicing
  • When speaking about semiconservative, what does it mean? DNA replication, each strand of double helix acts as a template for synthesis of a new, complementary strand
  • What is the enzyme called that makes DNA DNA polymerase
  • DNA polymerase requires what in the process of making DNA? template and primer
  • In wich direction does DNA polymerase make new DNA 5`to 3`
  • Which strand in DNA replication is made in an continuous piece? leading strand
  • Which strand during DNA replication is made into small pieces? lagging strand
  • DNA replication requires what enzymes? DNA primase, DNA helicase, DNA ligase and topoisomerase
  • Location on DNA where replication start is called? origins of replication
  • When the DNA opens, the two y-shaped structures is called? replication forks
  • the two replication forks are together called replication bubble
  • DNA replication proceeds, replication forks moves: in opposite direction
  • Helicase is first replication enzyme and does what: load on origin of replication, moves replication forks forward by breaking hydrogen bonds between the base pairs
  • On which end can DNA polymerase add nucleotides? 3`
  • What does DNA polymerase use to attach to the 3´end? free OH-group
  • What enzyme solves the problem of DNA polymerase only can attach to the 3´end? primase
  • Primase makes what primer, starts DNA synthesis
  • When RNA primer is in place, what happens? DNA polymerase builds DNA by adding corresponding bases
  • Which way can DNA polymerase MAKE DNA 5´to 3´
  • A DNA double helix is always? anti-parallel
  • The lagging strands are made in fragments called okazaki fragments
  • Gaps between DNA fragments are sealed by: DNA ligase
  • Single-strand binding proteins do what? Coat the DNA around replication fork
  • Why does Single-strand binding proteins coat DNA prevents rewinding of DNA
  • topoisomerase works were and does what? works ahead of replication fork and prevent supercoiling
  • In prokaryotes DNA replication initiates at: single site
  • In DNA replication in eukaryotes initiates at: multiple sites
  • Stage one of translation in Protein synthesis consists of: Intiation - ribosomal subunits bind to mRNA
  • Stage two of translation in protein synthesis consists of: Elongation - the ribosomes moves along the mRNA molecule linking amino acids and forming a polypeptide chain
  • Stage 3 of translation in protein synthesis consists of: termination - the ribosome reaches a stop codon, which terminates protein synthesis and releases ribosome
  • TRNA plays a huge roll in: protein synthesis and translation
  • Which two types of RNA have a role in initiation? mRNA and tRNA

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